Nigerian security forces have killed more than 13,000 civilians in the last 10 years, according to a non-governmental organisation focusing on the advancement of democracy and human rights in Africa.
The Centre for Democracy and Development says torture, unlawful detention and extra-judicial killings in the last decade have become “common” with impunity.
The Nigerian authorities have yet to publicly react to the report.
Researchers say they examined Nigeria’s democratic journey in the past two decades in several areas including human rights, press freedom and citizen participation in governance.
Their report published on Tuesday criticised what they called the use of “excessive force” to tackle separatists and “terrorist’” activities as well as peaceful demonstrations.
The research also cited the authorities’ handling of last year’s nationwide #EndSARS protests against police brutality.
The centre says the events created an environment of fear among citizens in Africa’s largest democracy.
It argues that security forces must be given more training on human rights and violators be held accountable, and citizens must be allowed to fully participate in governance for proper development.